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FireFighting Training Units

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Gas Fired Fire Training Simulatorsfire-training01
As a result, there was a move in the 1980's to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of gas-fired simulators for procedural training rather than fire behaviour training. Process Tempestini Group is very active in the design and development of gas-fired firefighting and rescue simulators.

Experts in Clean Burn Systemsfire-training02
In the past, fire fighting training has not been environmentally friendly. Clouds of black acrid smoke emitted by the Royal Navy's previous trainers had gained them the nickname "Smokey Joe's". The location of many new fire fighter training facilities, often in the centre of residential areas, means smoke stacks or visible emissions are prohibited under the planning permission process.

fire-training03Tempestini Group is able to employ techniques of recycling and catalytic clean-up systems to oxidise any smoke in the exhaust gas, that are not usually found in the fire training industry. This, together with the design of our burner systems, that already exceed current legislation, results in a highly environmentally friendly fire training system. Plumes of smoke are non existent.

Tempestini Group are not only able to supply emission-free hot fire and smoke simulators, but are able to offer advice and assistance to provide solutions to any smoke emission problems that a fire brigade may be experiencing during live-fire training sessions.

The FS Burnerfire-training04
The Fire Simulator Burner was specifically developed in the 1980's to provide a controllable, clean fire for fire-fighting training. The most important feature of the burner is that it introduces the propane in a controlled manner to promote combustion with an appropriate airflow; this is a burner, based on sound combustion engineering, not a simple gas release.

The primary requirements for the burner are that it should:
  • Give the typical 'yellow' flame pattern of a carbonaceous fire.
  • Burn with as complete combustion as possible whilst maintaining the 'yellow' flame pattern.
  • Not form soot.
  • Be controllable with regard to flame growth and flame height.
  • Be configurable with regard to flame spread and overall heat release.
  • Be instantaneously extinguished in the event of a safety violation.
  • Not be extinguished by the fire-fighting Trainees, whatever extinguishant is applied.
After shutdown, be instantaneously available for re-light to commence a new, possibly different, training scenario. Give minimum heat release, whilst satisfying the criteria above, to reduce the size of all the associated systems.

The FS Burner is designed to simulate a fire, which will enhance training, without placing the demands on the Fire-Fighting Trainer System, which a full fire would require. Training is achieved by reproducibility and presenting the opportunity for the Trainee to think about and better understand the training aims.

The burner is designed for minimum heat release for a given flame height and flame spread to reduce the load on the ventilation system and to minimise the gas burn. Also to achieve this aim the burner is mounted as close to the fireplace surround as possible to minimise 'hidden' flame height.

The FS Burner is fuelled by LPG (Propane) which gives the best flame characteristic. To achieve the yellow flame required, the burner is a raw-gas burner, which can be extinguished if liberally covered by extinguishant. The burner is therefore fitted with an integral dedicated pilot assembly, which re-lights the main burner after the extinguishant is removed. To comply with the requirements of BS EN 746 and BS EN 298, and to achieve greater operational reliability, this pilot burner is fitted with a forced-draught combustion air system. The pilot is continuously monitored by an ultra-violet flame detector. Failure of the pilot or flame detector system results in immediate shutdown of the burner system. This system forms part of the hard-wired protection system, which is integral to the Burner Management System.

Normally, each burner is furnished with a dedicated fuel supply and control line in accordance with BS EN 746. The requirement for instantaneous shutdown is met by this system. Flame height is controlled by a fully modulating control valve integral to this system.
Once the burner is correctly configured, the maximum flame height and heat release is fixed.

Thereafter, the flame growth and decay is determined simply by the position of the fuel gas control valve. This can be controlled remotely in response to the actions of the Trainees. Additionally, the growth, decay and even intensity may be controlled to suit a particular Training Scenario; for example, it is desirable to introduce 'raw' recruits to a less intense version of a particular fire than Instructors would experience in their training sessions. These parameters can be selected from the fireplace control panel or remotely from the Trainer Control Room, if applicable.

Burner Emissions
The FS burner is a genuine combustor designed on sound combustion engineering and does not represent a simple gas release whether achieved by a pipe discharge or by bubbling gas through a water bath. The difference is evident in the quality of combustion achieved.fire-training05

The Fire Research Station of the Building Research Establishment in Watford, UK, carried out an independent laboratory study on the FS burner and a water tray burner of their own design.

Table 1 shows the results of the bath fire; Table 2, for the FS burner. An oil-based smoke was included in both trials, as there is a small amount of partial burning of the oil resulting in an increase in CO levels.

Aromatics obtained from poor combustion are not necessarily a problem for the crews who would be wearing Breathing Apparatus but it could be detrimental to the health of the trainers who will be open to long term exposure.
Specific references were made in the report to the unacceptable levels of sulphur oxides, benzene, and particulates produced by the water bath burner.

In the UK, the PCL burner does not require environmental cleanup to comply with planning regulations.
The FRS study also investigated the time taken to shut the flame simulator down. It was found that the FS burner shut down in one second or less, whereas it could take the water bath as long as 20 seconds to extinguish.

Modular Firefighting Training Units
fire-training06A range of modular FFTU which can be built from basic construction elements to provide a low-cost Training Solution. All controls and safety equipment are included within the unit.

The design can be arranged to include multi-floor levels, pitched roofs and inbuilt platforms for 13.5 metre ladder drills and 'working at height' training.
The modules are a conventional beam/column steel structure with a design life of 25 years. The basic 'building blocks' are 3m wide x 4, 8 or 12m long with an internal height of 2.8m.

Potential Configurations
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Additional Elements:
The basic modules can be 'customised' to enhance training realism. Elements, which can be added, include:
Domestic Doors and Windows - Platforms
Loft Access Hatch - Rooflight
Ship's Hatch - Ladders and Caged Ladders
Removable Stair Treads - Removable Chimney

The Benefits of Process Combustion Fire Training Systems
This fire training systems offer a wide spectrum of LPG-fuelled simulators of varying fire scenario types and sizes, including a range of fire situations from a waste paper bin fire to an engine room fire on a warship. All fires are fully modulating, from minimum to maximum, under instructor control.
fire-training10Each fire scenario is set, controlled and shut down in an emergency by a remote control system. This facility allows the training officer to fully control the fire and regulate its development according to the competency of the firefighters under training.

After shutdown, the fire scenario is available for re-ignition, or can be reconfigured by the Operator to simulate a new fire situation.
If a trainee gets into difficulty at any time or becomes disorientated, the instructor can initiate an Emergency Shutdown which extinguishes all fires within 1 second, activates all lights and accelerates all ventilation blowers to maximum speed to evacuate all cosmetic smoke.

Fire Scenarios (Others Available)
Bed, Double/Single - Bunks
Armchairs and Sofas - Waste Binfire-training11
Domestic Cookers C/W Spill - Chip-Pan
Industrial Ranges - Broken
- Pipes/Flanges
Engines and Sumps - Control Panel
Electric Motor/Generator - Television
Computer Tower/Monitor - Fuel Spills
Work Bench - Cylinder Storage
Gas Meter - Storage Shelves
Pallet Storage - Cars and Motorcycles
HAZMAT - Chemical Plant
Single Seater - Aircraft Transport Aircraft

Ancillary Systems
LPG fuelled FFTUs are required to include forced ventilation systems, gas detection systems and temperature monitoring systems to ensure the safety of the system. These systems are included in all units.fire-training12
Training can be enhanced by additional systems - variable lighting, artificial smoke to obscure the unit, local heating and humidity control, sound systems and strobe lights to add to realism levels and further disorientate the trainees. All systems are available as options to add to the basic FFTU.

Naval and Maritime Firefighting
Fires on-board ships bring with them a host of problems not encountered on land. In the event of an on board fire, there is fire-training13nowhere to retreat to and the quantity of water pumped into the ship must be limited.
These points, together with the inherent confined spaces found on board ships, makes fighting shipboard fires a complex operation.

The Royal Navy required a centre to process around 15,000 students per year ranging from new recruits to experienced fire fighters. The level of realism required had to be high, both in the representation of a ship and in the fires, smoke, noise and heat experienced in an emergency.
The project was the culmination of seventeen years of research and development with the Ministry of Defence to develop a fire fighting training unit with a level of realism and safety second to none.fire-training14

HMS Excellent consists of eight fire training units and one demonstration area for live fire, search and rescue and stress training. Each of the eight units has three floors and four compartments. A network of corridors, ladders and hatches link together the galley, mess deck, machinery control room and engine room. The facility at HMS Excellent, in Portsmouth, fire-training15comprises 84 fire simulations and handles in excess of 10,000 Trainees per annum. The smaller facility at HMS Raleigh, in Plymouth, has 24 fire simulations and handles 5000 Trainees per annum. HMS Excellent also includes 80 Concept Viscount smoke generators and 16 catalytic oxidisers to cleanup the facility exhaust.

Almost every aspect of the training environment can be changed to meet the requirements of the exercise. These include the level of heat, visibility, lighting levels, background noise and explosions, together with the fire scenario's height and intensity.fire-training16

In the control room, scenarios can be designed and safety levels can be set to suit the skill level of the trainee. When the unit is armed, control of the fires passes to the safety officer in the compartment who controls the unit via a local control pendent. Every aspect of the unit and training is monitored and recorded in the control room.
Maintenance and diagnostics also start at the control room, where the operation and usage of all the equipment is logged.

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fire-training19 fire-training20

fire-training21In addition to the procedural training for ship crews Tempestini Group has been involved in the developing of realistic ship board training environments for civilian personnel who will not be as farniliar with the layout of ships.This training requirement can be met by either the modification of an existing ship by placing it in dry dock and refitting the interior or by the fabrication of a purpose built structure to resemble the interior and exterior of a ship.

The solution shown is a purpose built facility fabricated with four decks each having a flat central section and 15° sloping sections to port and starboard to simulate the listing of a ship. This is then fit out with an assortment of fire training scenarios and effect as in the procedural simulators.

Traditional Fire Training Units
All fire scenarios can be installed in a traditional build Training Unit, purpose designed and built steel structures or retrofitted to existing installations, such as Breathing Apparatus Smoke Chambers.
fire-training22Severn Park Fire and Rescue Joint Training Centre is an example of a purpose built traditional structure into which gas fired training systems are installed. In 2002 Somerset, Avon & Gloucester Joint Fire Brigades awarded us the contract for the design, fabrication, installation and commissioning of a new fire training ground including a house, tower, industrial building and hazmat area.fire-training23

The supply in the house section of the training simulator includes a double bed fire, a bunk bed fire, sofa fire with ceiling fire, television fire, cooker fire including pan, spill and ceiling fires, smoke generation, ventilation system, gas detection, temperature monitoring, lighting and emergency lighting
The supply in the industrial building includes a storage box fire, crib fire, smoke generation, ventilation system, gas detection, temperature monitoring, lighting and emergency lighting. The supply in the hazmat area includes an industrial spill fire and a burst flange fire.

fire-training24Control is via a PC user interface in a central control room with local instructor pendants in all fire active areas.
Cheshire Fire Service is an example of a purpose built steel training structure. This consists of a three storey building with a variety of pitched and flat roofs.
The building is of a steel construction with nine training rooms, one plant room and one central control room. The building is used for both fire and search and rescue training.
Tempestini Group can supply the whole of the facility which includes three LPG fires representing domestic and industrial scenarios.fire-training25

The Fire Service at RAF Molesworth had an existing fire training building that they used for carbonaceous fires and required it to be refit with propane fuelled fires. It is a two storey building with four rooms representing a kitchen, living room, garage and bedroom.
Tempestini Group installed three fires representing a domestic cooker with fire ball, an armchair fire and a bunk bed fire. We also installed a ventilation system and control panel.
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fire-training27

Hazardous Material Fire Training
Firefighters are increasingly called to deal with emergency incidents and accidents situations involving HAZMAT materials, both in industrial use, storage or transportation.fire-training28
Tempestini Group offer a range of fire simulations to enable training for HAZMAT fires and emergency scenarios. The props and fires can be arranged to represent a typical batch chemical processing plant, refinery or rig equipment and include overhead drench systems, burst pipes, liquid spillages, broken flanges and process plant with associated pressure vessels for boundary cooling. Pipework includes manual valves, both local and remote, requiring the trainees to search out the correct valve and close it to extinguish the fire. Realism can be enhanced by the addition of coloured smokes, dyed liquors and strobe lights and sound effects.

Standards
All LPG fuelled firefighting training systems comply with the following high-level standards, which call up many other standards:
Fire Service Manual - Volume 4 Fire Service Training
NFPA 1402 - Guide to Building Fire Service Training Centres
BS EN 746-2 - Industrial Thermo-processing Equipment - Safety Requirements for Combustion & Fuel Handling Systems
IEC61508 - Functional Safety of Electrical/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems

Aircraft Firefighting Training
fire-training29Aviation firefighting and rescue services, both civil and military, are able to benefit from the realism and repeatabifire-training30lity of LPG fire scenarios in custom-built aircraft simulators.

The aviation simulators are able to provide a variety of emergency scenarios ranging from a high-level engine fire to various internal and external fires on a full-size aircraft structure ranginfire-training31g from single seater planes and helicopters to large transport and passenger jets. Amongst these can be fuel spill fires, engine, wheel and brake fires, through to fires in galley, toilet, flight deck, cabin and cargo bay areas of an aircraft. These realistic training scenarios allow the attainment of a high standard of professional competency for firefighters.

All aviation simulator fires are available with full control systems, safety shutdown, and data capture.

Control and Data Capture
Nowadays, it is critical for fire brigades to maintain detailed records of the precise fire, heat and smoke conditions in which firefighters are training. The FFTU control system provides for complete electronic capture and storage of training data which can be downloaded from the system PC at any time.
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Example Fires from Previous Projects

fire-training35 Bunks, double and single beds
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Televisions and Waste Bins
fire-training37
Industrial and Maritime
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Drums, Pallets and Boxes
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Industrial plant fires complete with valves
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Marine Engine fires from conceptual design to final product

Installations Include

Royal Navy
- First Prototype LPG Fuelled Naval Firefighting Trainer
Royal Navy
- Prototype Compartment - LPG Fuelled Naval Firefighting Trainer
RAF Mildenhall
- KC135/DC10 Aircraft simulator (the first of its kind supplied to the USAF in Europe)
RAF Lakenheath
- Smoke House
RAF Lakenheath
- F15 Aircraft simulator
Barnston Mere
- Heating and Ventilation systems for two fire training buildings
RAF Mildenhall
- New Smoke House
HMS Excellent
- Multi unit Maritime Firefighting training Unit
HMS Raleigh
- Multi unit Maritime Firefighting training Unit
RAF Molesworth
- Upgrade to fire training building RAF
North Yorkshire Fire & Rescue Service
- Fire House
Cheshire Fire Service
- Modular realistic domestic fire training unit
Severn Park Fire & Rescue Training Centre
- Domestic and HAZMAT simulation
West Sussex Fire & Rescue Service
- Stress Heating upgrade to three smoke buildings
Vigilaris Ltd
- Mobile fire training unit
Essex Fire & Rescue Service
- Stress Heating upgrade to three smoke buildings
RAF Menwith Hill
- new modular fire training building
Hellenic Navy
- Maritime Firefighting training Unit
Singapore Civil Defence Force
- Maritime Firefighting training Unit
South Wales Fire & Rescue Service
- Domestic, industrial and HAZMAT simulation
RAF Linton-on-Ouse
- Domestic Fire Fighting Training Unit
Lothian and Borders Fire and Rescue Service
- Maritime Firefighting training Unit
Strathclyde Fire Brigade
- Modular realistic multi scenario fire training unit
Qatar Petroleum
- Modular realistic multi scenario fire training unit
Dorset Fire & Rescue Service (Poole and Dorchester)
- Domestic fire and smoke training unit

Other Products

fire-training42 Submerged Combustion
Vaporisers
fire-training43 Water Bath
and Process
Heaters
fire-training44 Fire Fighting Training
Units
fire-training45 Catalytic and
Regenerative
Thermal
Oxidisers
fire-training46 Thermal Oxidisers
fire-training47 Instrumentation
and
Control Systems

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